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View Larger Image. Ask Seller a Question. Title: The Encyclopedia of the Heart and Heart Book Condition: Used: Good. Perfect for clinicians and patients, bringing together the most current information on all facets of the heart and heart-related topics. Organized in a concise, authorative encyclopaedic format, this volume offers a complete overview of the medical, social, and lifestyle implications of heart disease.

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If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required. List this Seller's Books. While the evidence is mixed [2] , [6] , it should be noted that most social support interventions evaluated in the literature thus far are based on support provided from strangers; in contrast, evidence provided in this meta-analysis is based almost entirely on naturally occurring social relationships.

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Moreover, our analyses suggest that received support is less predictive of mortality than social integration Table 4. Therefore, facilitating patient use of naturally occurring social relations and community-based interventions may be more successful than providing social support through hired personnel, except in cases in which patient social relations appear to be detrimental or absent. Multifaceted community-based interventions may have a number of advantages because such interventions are socially grounded and include a broad cross-section of the public.

Overall, given the significant increase in rate of survival not to mention quality of life factors , the results of this meta-analysis are sufficiently compelling to promote further research aimed at designing and evaluating interventions that explicitly account for social relationship factors across levels of health care prevention, evaluation, treatment compliance, rehabilitation, etc. Data across , individuals, followed for an average of 7.

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The magnitude of this effect is comparable with quitting smoking and it exceeds many well-known risk factors for mortality e. These findings also reveal significant variability in the predictive utility of social relationship variables, with multidimensional assessments of social integration being optimal when assessing an individual's risk for mortality and evidence that social isolation has a similar influence on mortality to other measures of social relationships. The overall effect remained consistent across a number of factors, including age, sex, initial health status, follow-up period, and cause of death, suggesting that the association between social relationships and mortality may be general, and efforts to reduce risk should not be isolated to subgroups such as the elderly.

To draw a parallel, many decades ago high mortality rates were observed among infants in custodial care i. Lack of human contact predicted mortality. The medical profession was stunned to learn that infants would die without social interaction. This single finding, so simplistic in hindsight, was responsible for changes in practice and policy that markedly decreased mortality rates in custodial care settings.

Contemporary medicine could similarly benefit from acknowledging the data: Social relationships influence the health outcomes of adults. Physicians, health professionals, educators, and the public media take risk factors such as smoking, diet, and exercise seriously; the data presented here make a compelling case for social relationship factors to be added to that list. With such recognition, medical evaluations and screenings could routinely include variables of social well-being; medical care could recommend if not outright promote enhanced social connections; hospitals and clinics could involve patient support networks in implementing and monitoring treatment regimens and compliance, etc.

Health care policies and public health initiatives could likewise benefit from explicitly accounting for social factors in efforts aimed at reducing mortality risk. Individuals do not exist in isolation; social factors influence individuals' health though cognitive, affective, and behavioral pathways.

Efforts to reduce mortality via social relationship factors will require innovation, yet innovation already characterizes many medical interventions that extend life at the expense of quality of life. Social relationship—based interventions represent a major opportunity to enhance not only the quality of life but also survival. Abstract Background The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality.

Objectives This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk.

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Data Extraction Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Conclusions The influence of social relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.


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Editors' Summary Background Humans are naturally social. Why Was This Study Done? What Did the Researchers Do and Find? What Do These Findings Mean? Methods Identification of Studies To identify published and unpublished studies of the association between social relationships and mortality, we used three techniques. Inclusion Criteria We included in the meta-analysis studies that provided quantitative data regarding individuals' mortality as a function of social relationships, including both structural and functional aspects [23].

Download: PPT. Data Abstraction To increase the accuracy of coding and data entry, each article was initially coded by two raters. Results Statistically nonredundant effect sizes were extracted from studies [29] — [] ; see Table 1. Table 1. Overview of the studies included in the meta-analysis. Moderation by Social Relationship Assessment, and by Participant and Study Characteristics Given that structural versus functional components of social relationships may influence health in different ways [11] , [12] , the high degree of heterogeneity observed in the omnibus results may have been due in part to differences between the components of social relationships evaluated within and across studies.

Table 2. Descriptive coding of the measures used to assess social relationships. Structural aspects of social relationships. Table 3.

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Random effects metaregression for effect size estimates of structural social relationships. Table 4. Weighted average effect sizes across different measures of social relationships. Functional aspects of social relationships. Combined assessments of social relationships.

Discussion Cumulative empirical evidence across independent studies indicates that individuals' experiences within social relationships significantly predict mortality. Figure 6. Comparison of odds lnOR of decreased mortality across several conditions associated with mortality.

Conclusion Data across , individuals, followed for an average of 7. Supporting Information. Alternative Language Abstract S1. Abstract translated into Japanese by Hideko Cannell. Alternative Language Abstract S2. Abstract translated into Spanish by Rod Veas. Text S1.

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Text S2. Review protocol. References 1. Science — View Article Google Scholar 2. JAMA — View Article Google Scholar 3. Am Sociol Rev — View Article Google Scholar 4. Measuring and intervening in social support.


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New York: Oxford University Press. Adv Mind Body Med — View Article Google Scholar 7. Cohen S Social relationships and health. Am Psychol — View Article Google Scholar 8. Thoits PA Multiple identities and psychological well-being: A reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis. View Article Google Scholar 9.