In March , Lincoln named Grant commander of the Union armies.
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On April 9, , General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army of Northern Virginia, effectively ending the war. The nearly simultaneous Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were the beginning of the end for the Confederacy. The fall of Vicksburg re-opened the Midwest to trade with the outside world and allowed the Union forces of General Ulysses S. Grant to operate virtually unopposed in the deep South. Vicksburg, Mississippi, like many Southern cities, suffered acutely from the ravages of the Civil War.
This issue of the Confederate newspaper is printed on the back of wallpaper, supplies of every kind having been exhausted during the long and difficult siege. Ulysses must get into the city before he dines in it.
Vicksburg Daily Citizen , July 2, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Newspaper printed on wallpaper. For the first three days of July , Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, became the site of one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, when General Robert E. This oval-shaped map depicts the positions occupied by both Union and Confederate troops and artillery throughout the three-day battle, along with roads, railways, and homes with the names of residents.
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Theodore Ditterline. New York: C. Alvord, Geography and Map Division , Library of Congress The choice fell on a career officer named George Gordon Meade.
To his credit, Meade demonstrated conspicuous courage in the Battle of Gettysburg, which occurred just two days after he assumed command. However, he, too, lacked the aggressive spirit that Lincoln knew was necessary to achieve a Northern victory and preserve the Union. Meade soon found himself under the watchful and authoritative eye of the new Union general-in-chief, Lieutenant General Ulysses S.
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Abraham Lincoln to George Meade, July 14, Civil War sketch artists traveled with the armies, sharing the dangers and hardships of soldiers in the field. Oil painting, between and This document represents the earliest known of the five drafts of what may be the most famous American speech. The first page is on White House then Executive Mansion stationery, lending strong support to the theory that it was drafted in Washington, D.
But the second page is on what has been loosely described as foolscap, suggesting that Lincoln was not fully satisfied with the final paragraph of the Address and rewrote that passage in Gettysburg on November 19 while staying at the home of Judge David Wills. Manuscript Division , Library of Congress Wills carefully explained to Lincoln that the proposed cemetery was planned and financed by states having soldiers buried at Gettysburg.
Wills, who had conceived the idea of a national cemetery and had organized the dedication, made it equally clear to the president that he would have only a small part in the ceremonies. Lincoln is pictured in the center of the platform, hatless with his bodyguard, Ward Lamon, and Governor Andrew Curtin of Pennsylvania. Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg, November 19, Facsimile from glass plate negative.
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By early , the Civil War was drawing to an end. Much of the Southern landscape was devastated, the Southern economy was shattered, and the demoralized Confederates saw little chance of winning. After four years of fighting and the death of , soldiers—more than in all other American wars combined—both Northerners and Southerners were relieved when the bloody conflict ended. President Lincoln summoned General Grant to the White House for consultation concerning the war, and he used the opportunity to personally award Grant the highest military rank the nation had to offer.
Congress had acted with unusual haste to revive the rank of lieutenant general, to which no U. Army officer except George Washington had been promoted before on a permanent basis. Ulysses S.
1. Booth initially planned to kidnap Lincoln.
Charles Sholl. Grant , Military leaders cannot escape the burdens of war, and nowhere are the multiple responsibilities of military leadership more heavily felt than at the highest level of command. The casualties suffered by the forces of General Ulysses S. Grant during the Overland Campaign in Virginia exceeded expectations, and this letter by President Lincoln, written as the Battle of the Wilderness concluded, provides a rare glimpse of the pain Lincoln felt.
Abraham Lincoln to an unnamed correspondent, May 7, On loan from a private collector Digital ID al Sherman captured and occupied Savannah, Georgia. Williams, John A. Logan, Henry W. Slocum, John W. Geary, Charles R. Woods, and John E. William Waud. Pencil drawing. Out of touch with the North and living largely off the land, Sherman and his forces kept Lincoln in suspense regarding the success of this operation for thirty-two days.
Abraham Lincoln to William T. Sherman, December 26, William T.
Sherman to Abraham Lincoln, December 22, Telegraph message. Search GO. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress Port Royal Band Book , — Message to Congress, July 4, In his lengthy and detailed address to Congress, Lincoln outlined the events that ignited the war.
Punch , August 17, Battle of Antietam The battle along Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, , proved to be the bloodiest single day of the entire war. Sketch of the Battle of Fredericksburg This map of the battle of Fredericksburg was compiled by Confederate topographical engineer Jedediah Hotchkiss and records the disposition of Union and Confederate forces on December 13, Major General Ambrose E.
Major General Joseph Hooker Politics, partisanship, and indecision combined briefly in the career of General Joseph Hooker to ruin an otherwise brilliant military record.
Ulysses S. Grant () - Mr. Lincoln and Friends
The Army of the Potomac April provided a brief respite for the weary president. Final Version of the Emancipation Proclamation President Lincoln issued the first printing of the preliminary version of the Emancipation Proclamation as an order from the commander-in-chief to the armed forces. Lincoln Reads the Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet Lincoln withheld the Emancipation Proclamation he drafted in July until a favorable turn in military events. Sketch of the Battles of Gettysburg.
Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress Gettysburg Address This document represents the earliest known of the five drafts of what may be the most famous American speech. Dedication Ceremony, November 19, Lincoln is pictured in the center of the platform, hatless with his bodyguard, Ward Lamon, and Governor Andrew Curtin of Pennsylvania. The War Takes its Toll on Lincoln Military leaders cannot escape the burdens of war, and nowhere are the multiple responsibilities of military leadership more heavily felt than at the highest level of command. Stanton acted as an informal council of war.
Lincoln, besides transmitting official orders through Halleck, also communicated directly with the generals, sending personal suggestions in his own name. To generals opposing Robert E. Finally Lincoln looked to the West for a top general. He admired the Vicksburg Campaign of Ulysses S. Grant in Mississippi. Lincoln sent also an admission of his own error. He said he had expected Grant to bypass Vicksburg and go on down the Mississippi, instead of crossing the river and turning back to approach Vicksburg from the rear. In March Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general and gave him command of all the federal armies.
At last Lincoln had found a man who, with such able subordinates as William T. Sherman , Philip Sheridan , and George H. Grant was only a member, though an important one, of a top-command arrangement that Lincoln eventually had devised. Overseeing everything was Lincoln himself, the commander in chief.
Taking the responsibility for men and supplies was Secretary of War Stanton. Serving as a presidential adviser and as a liaison with military men was Halleck, the chief of staff. Thus Lincoln pioneered in the creation of a high command, an organization for amassing all the energies and resources of a people in the grand strategy of total war. He combined statecraft and the overall direction of armies with an effectiveness that increased year by year. His achievement is all the more remarkable in view of his lack of training and experience in the art of warfare.
This lack may have been an advantage as well as a handicap. Unhampered by outworn military dogma , Lincoln could all the better apply his practical insight and common sense—some would say his military genius—to the winning of the Civil War. Before his election to the presidency he had spoken often and eloquently on the subject.
In , for example, he said he hated the Douglas attitude of indifference toward the possible spread of slavery to new areas. That sight was a continual torment to me; and I see something like it every time I touch the Ohio, or any other slave-border. Yet, as president , Lincoln was at first reluctant to adopt an abolitionist policy. There were several reasons for his hesitancy. Lincoln decides to wait to address the nation publicly, however, hoping to introduce his proclamation after a more favorable military battle.
The battle leads to huge Union losses. General Lee invades the North in an attempt to isolate Washington, D. The Union is aided by a copy of Lee's orders, left by a Confederate soldier at a campsite. In the carnage that follows, nearly 5, men are killed and 18, wounded. McClellan fails to follow Lee's retreat, and a frustrated Lincoln consequently removes him from his command.
In the document, Lincoln frees all slaves in Confederate or contested areas of the South. Slaves in non-Confederate border states and in parts of the Confederacy under Union control are not included. European public opinion sides with Lincoln and the Union.
The Republicans maintain control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate, with a majority in Senate and a majority in the House.