An ugly hag of a sea witch. Even a old wrinkly hag will come out with baby smooth skin. Anche una vecchia megera rugosa uscirebbe con la pelle liscia, come quella di un bambino. Everyone just thinks of you as Titus' busted hag. Tutti ti vedono come la befana malridotta di Titus. She's justa miserable rent-snatching hag. The hag can visit anyone, but preys on the weak. She's a justice minister hag. The hag says she's a shamaness. Questa strega dice di essere una sciamana.
California Italian Studies
The woman just thought the hag was rooting around for food Strega stesse rovistando in cerca di cibo She's no hag , Beowulf. I'm taking a break, you hag. Mi prendo una pausa, brutta strega. I cannot believe Darlene is such a lying hag. Non riesco a credere che Darlene sia una tale strega bugiarda. The way the hag kissed you They may even develop an internal ob- server during play that they may then use for their narrator after the larp.
According to one of the definitions of an rpg, it is Any game which allows a number of players to assume the roles of imaginary characters and operate with some degree of freedom in an imaginary environ- ment.
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The philosopher uses present participles to em- phasize present tense, the tense of drama: all the people who are doing mimesis taking part in the action and working in it. And these are by no means equivalent. Funnily enough, according to narratology, all diegesis may be thought of as subjective anyway since there is always a point of view, or a voice Genette When discussing larp, although the term frame Goffman on its own does make sense, this does not necessarily mean it has to be a diegetic rather than a dramatic or a performative one.
Questions as to the authorship of the frame crop up. Do we really need to invent an ideal observer detached, uninvolved who may speak the one and only truth, thus we use terminology that would suit such an individual? When diegesis was still a collective creation, it was also a performance, as in the reciting of the Homeric epic. In case we were to seek terminology not undermining the dramatic and per- formative element, the discussion about unity of time, place and action, occupying a key position in the theory of theatre and drama since Aristotle, would be needed to be taken into account.
But, as we will try to indicate here, a satisfying storyline would satisfy a storyteller or a writer, maybe a reader, not a dramatist. A story, as the term is usually used, possibly due to its ontological connection to history, requires a present lived and looked at from a distance by an observer. It resides in the pre- sent awaiting to be realized in some future. It may use recounting of events, especially in soliloquies, but this does not necessitate the use of the word story over scenario, script or plot outline, when talking about larp in a dramatic con- require a diegetic function, since diegesis may be considered interactive only when performa- tive for example, a storyteller performs in front of an audience.
The term extra-diegetic frame may be said to imply all the above mentioned connotations relevant to the diegetic frame.
If players feel and think they are illustrating a diegesis, constructing a diegesis through their actions, how can they be possibly immersed, or in-role? Instead if the focus shifts onto the three unities, then the flow element receives the attention needed. Myth never ceases to unfold in the collective subconscious without our affirmation or control, within the pool of potential expression and play of archetypes, as Jung has sup- ported and Moreno with psychodrama and persona theory illustrated.
Human consciousness becomes a vehicle for the unfolding of myth. In this way, the play is being played and the player joins in, as Gadamer has argued. In the case of larp, the myth is being played constantly in the collec- tive subconscious, and the player joins in by adopting a role, a persona. Pedersen takes us closer to the notion of people joining myth, instead of setting up stories, when she quotes Benjamin on phantasmagorie: On to the theoretical framework: For further explanation of the dialectical con- stitution of the larp, we will turn to the concept of phantasmagorie.
In Paris, Capital of the 19th century, Walter Benjamin writes of the phantasmagorie: A vision which society produces from a dialectical idea of both the new and a common ancient memory, in an utopical repression of reality. The similarities are already visible, as larp basically emerges from the common participation in imagining the fictive world.
Furthermore, the vision of the larp can be said to stem from both the new and the elements of ancient myth. The actor-audience relationship, which belongs to the world of drama and performance, is what needs to be addressed when talking about drama and larp. More details on this relationship will be next in this paper, when we will talk about the audience-spectator parameter.
Drama, immersion and larp: further clarification of terminology So far we have examined how drama has been terminologically colonized by narratology and how the terminology on larping emphasizes the textual element over the dramatic and the performative. But, is it enough to rely solely on terminology deriving from drama when talking about larp? Immersionists for example have developed a rich termi- nology, mainly influenced by narratology, and thus cover a wide range of terminological nuances on larps.
How may drama and immersionism develop a common ground? Pavis Following this strand of thought, and to develop the bridge between the iconic and the performative, the performance-as-spectacle notion is of great importance.
Nor- mally, the comparison is made by an observer of the action [ Landy in his book Persona and Performance indicates that in the playing of a role, there are three points on the continuum: 1. Landy The initial impulsion would be to connect distance with the Threefold Model: overdistance with gamist style, underdistance with immersionist and aesthetic distance with dramatist style. This would demand a lot of thought though, so it will be left aside for future discussion.
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For the time being it would suffice to say that there are indications that immersionists seek the elimination of the distance between themselves and the role in a dramatic context, so, in fact, immersionism may be considered as one extreme of the distancing scale: Overdistance Aesthetic distance Underdistance Gamist? At some point, he distanced himself from the chorus and addressed the rest of the participants.
That is supposed to be the genesis of theatre as we know it.
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So, in fact, many theories and practices in the history of theatre, especially in terms of performance theory, see the essence of theatre in communitas Ericsson , the collective as creator. So, if we really forced the situation as to speak of fellow players as audi- ence, instead of residents in the same fictional, imagined and performative dramatic world, it could just mean we are over-distanced from our role when we talk about it.
As for the totally external perspective, the random bystander, well, it cer- tainly is a performance if she is to look at a bunch of immersed people run- ning up a hill in disguise often shouting incomprehensibly to each other — a random larp scene. Kirby has gone even further, having in fact eliminated the need of the no- tion of some audience or spectators for theatrical performance Kirby A storyteller might be obsessed with a storyline, a dramatist larpwright with a larp scenario, but a larp player should not worry too much about plot.
And that is bad theatre. Drama in action — and not on paper — is so more about motives, wants, needs, fears, obstacles and response. It is all in the imagination, they might claim. How may larping be a performance or theatre since it all happens in the head? According to the definition provided, theatre is the presentation of fiction through the interaction of actors.
If theatre is the representation of fiction, as Aristotle claimed almost years ago, we need to seek where and how the first presentation of fiction-as-drama takes place. Peter Brook has suggested that any empty space may be called a bare stage Brook There have been times in larp theory when an involvement with visualization has been evident, even from researchers and practitioners with more narratological agendas. As total virtual reali- ties are not yet provided by the industry, all imaginative interaction in larps is mediated through physical interaction.
The imagined, visualized, iconic fictive is mediated through the performative. His book Reinventing Drama certainly contains elements of a the- ory of drama and performance in tune with the concept of iconicity Shapiro In fact, according to his view, the performative becomes iconic and vice versa on the shared ground of future representations being located within the volition centre of the human brain and referring to future planning, a concept that has possible implementations on the field of theory and practice of per- formance.
If we now go back to the word scenario or script, instead of story, we may realize how important the present and future tenses are as opposed to past. The fictive is iconic and performative, not only textual. Where does this all leave us with regards to larping? What the digital performance animator does is analogous to how a puppeteer animates puppets.
Conclusions How could drama contribute to the acquisition of a new vocabulary, at least for its own use, when approaching rpgs? The fact that in larps there is often a written text to-be-brought-to-life, character descriptions and other textual elements should not be the sole parameters determining the terminol- ogy in larp theory.
And larping is also a spectacle, not just a text. Narratology, having sought a myth and text even in the iconic world, and having found it everywhere, established a rhetoric of the image as narrative Barthes It is important to bear in mind that the issue of audience and spectator in larping raises the question about the relationship between the iconic and the performative.
Visualization, imaginisation and iconicity require a spectator-as-audience. So the immersive claim in larp is in fact connected to the spectator-audience issue. When a player is immersed, he is an embodied spectator in an imagined universe. That universe is more a dramatic world and less a diegetic one since her ideas, feelings, hopes, fears and wishes alter in real-time the drama in the head and affect future planning of actions.
So, in fact, the larper, when seen from an immersionist point of view, is a fully embodied spectator, and from a dramatist point of view an actor, an agent, re-acting to internal and external stimuli.
The immersionist and the dramatist approaches reinforce each other, on the basis of performance as iconicity and iconicity as performance. What lies in the heart of the lack of consideration of mmorpgs as performative phenomena is the very split of doer versus thinker, body versus mind. This insight might be of interest to some, especially the immersionists, until the era comes when the human brain would be able to directly animate objects or holograms of ob- jects — with the aid of super technology — and a new debate about the faculty of human imagination being the director of the performance of inner repre- sentations triggers hot discussions.
Per una risposta a questa domanda si rinvia alla mia considerazione finale. Le ragioni teologiche dellambiguit del fenomeno mistico 2. Alcune domande generali Abbiamo visto sopra quanta ambiguit si nasconda gi nelluso del concetto di mistica, sia nel linguaggio quotidiano che in quello rahneriano, accennando come tale ambiguit possa costituire un sintomo di una problematica teologica. Siamo giunti dunque alla domanda: In fin dei conti, cosa significa la mistica?
Si tratta in ogni caso delle esperienze stravaganti e peculiari quali visioni, esperienze extracorporee, previsione del futuro, estasi, glossolalia parlare in lingue non conosciute , levitazione, stigmatizzazione e altri fenomeni paranormali? Per poter utilizzare questo termine, ci si deve riferire almeno a quel tipo di esperienza di cui lapostolo Paolo parla quando dice: Conosco un uomo in Cristo che, quattordici anni fa se con il corpo o fuori del corpo non lo so, lo sa Dio fu rapito fino al terzo cielo.
E so che questuomo se con il corpo o senza corpo non lo so, lo sa Dio fu rapito in paradiso e ud parole indicibili che non lecito ad alcuno pronunziare 2Cor 12,? Oppure forse anche ad altri fenomeni, pi modesti e meno vistosi, che possono essere denominati con la stessa parola: come, ad esempio, lo stato di una esistenza umana che pienamente immersa in una fede viva, che pratica la carit e irradia la speranza?