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Bulnheim , H.

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Interaction between genetic, external and parasitic factors in sex determination of the crustacean amphipod Gammarus duebeni. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 31 , 1 — Ginsburger-Vogel , T. Phenomenes de monogenie dans la population de Penze. Influence of temperature on sex differentiation in descendants of certain female Orchestia gammarellus.

Genetic and epigenetic intervening factors in the sexual determination and differentiation in the crustacean Orchestia gammarellus. Intersexuality in Orchestia mediterranea Costa, , and Orchestia aestuarensis Wildish, Amphipoda : a consequence of hybridization or parasitic infestation? Journal of Crustacean Biology 11 , — Intersexuality in Orchestia mediterranea Costa, , and Orchestia aestuarensis Wildish, , is not a consequence of interspecific hybridization.

Experimental transmission of a factor responsible for male intersexuality in Orchestia gammarellus Pallas.

Experientia 32 , — Structure and biology of Marteilia sp. Marine Fisheries Review 41 , 3 — 7. Ultrastructural study of sporulation of Paramarteilia orchestiae gen. Journal of Protozoology 26 , — Hurst , L. The incidences, mechanisms and evolution of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters in animals. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 68 , — Hurst , G.

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Male-killing bacteria in insects: mechanisms, incidence, and implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6 , — Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect. Hurvich , C. Regression and time series model selection in small samples. Biometrika 76 , — Ironside , J. Microsporidian parasites feminise hosts without paramyxean co-infection: support for convergent evolution of parasitic feminisation. International Journal for Parasitology 45 , — Two species of feminizing microsporidian parasite coexist in populations of Gammarus duebeni. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16 , — Jiggins , F.

Sex-ratio-distorting wolbachia causes sex-role reversal in its butterfly host. Kelly , A. Intersexuality in the amphipod Gammarus duebeni results from incomplete feminisation by the vertically transmitted parasitic sex ratio distorter Nosema granulosis. Evolutionary Ecology 18 , — Lincoln , R.

Warming warning over turtle feminization

British Marine Amphipoda: Gammaridea. British Museum Natural History , London.

Hardest things about being a Female Marine

Mautner , S. Evidence for sex ratio distortion by a new microsporidian parasite of a Corophiid amphipod.

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Parasitology , — McCurdy , D. Are female-biased sex ratios in a key amphipod caused by male-biased predation or sex-distorting parasites? Integrative and Comparative Biology 44 , — Rigaud , T. Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr.

Current Biology

Genetics , — Short , S. Paramyxean-microsporidian co-infection in amphipods: is the consensus that microsporidia can feminise their hosts presumptive? International Journal for Parasitology 42 , — Stentiford , G.

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While the population impacts are conflictive, enough negative effects warrant additional research into causation. In order to ascertain the identities of specific feminizing agents, variants of toxicity identification evaluations TIEs have been employed. The majority of these evaluations have utilized in vitro estrogen receptor-based cell-lines to identify chromatographic fractions that possess biological activity from predominately wastewater derived from municipal treatment facilities and have concluded that synthetic and natural estrogens are the primary cause for feminization of fish.

Wastewater and sediment extracts were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo biological responses in a TIE fractionation design. While in vitro responses tended to mirror in vivo responses in purely domestic wastewater systems, in vitro responses tended to severely underestimate in vivo estrogenic activity when normalized to estradiol equivalents in more complex systems.

TIE fractionation schemes using in vivo biological responses failed to indicate any relationship to steroids in either wastewater or sediment extractions. These data consistently support the view that mechanisms other than direct ER binding and activation by toxicants may be important in the feminization of fish particularly residing in habitats that receive complex wastewater or agricultural effluents.

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