It began in September and ended in September Our intention is to reconsider the data in order to discuss factors that stand between the experience of exclusion as a short term set back and those which seem to trigger a trajectory of difficulty and unhappiness. In England exclusion is a disciplinary measure, which the Headteacher of a school can use to respond to challenging and inappropriate pupil behaviour.
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This paper is concerned with permanent exclusion in which the school's governing body is required to review the Headteacher's decision and parents' views on the exclusion are invited. Within one day of the exclusion parents are informed in a letter which states the precise period of the exclusion, the reason s for the exclusion, and outlines rights to appeal to the governors of the school.
Exclusion may be for a fixed term or permanent. If the governing body confirms the exclusion, parents can appeal to an independent appeal panel. Permanent exclusion from English schools may involve subsequent placement in PRUs Pupil Referral Units , special schools, home tuition, attendance at further education colleges for vocational training and a wide variety of alternative provision projects Hayden, These laid out clear guidelines e. Concerns about disparities in the data with regard to gender and Special Educational Needs persist:.
It would seem reasonable to suggest that, at the level of overall analysis, little has changed in the last 10 years and that whatever it is that drives permanent exclusion is a fairly durable feature of English schooling. The study to be considered in this article sought to highlight factors associated with positive outcomes for excluded pupils including both those who returned to mainstream education and those who did not Daniels et al.
The aims were:. A representative sample of English LEAs was selected and subsequently recruited. The sample of LEAs was also chosen with reference to region, type, size of secondary school population and ethnic representation, and finalised in discussion with the funders' steering committee.
LEA officers were then interviewed about the range of provision offered and LEA data about exclusions examined. These data included information on where pupils were placed. Details of the sample are given in table 2. A fourth grouping of lost was necessary. This approach was unlike other studies of exclusions, where samples had consisted of young people who regularly attended particular provisions or who volunteered to participate.
This study aimed and succeeded in reaching many young people who were either refusing, avoiding, or had very tenuous links with education, training or other services offered although this was not a factor in deciding who to include in the sample. The study was concerned with associations between processes and outcomes. The selection strategy therefore prioritised the young people's 'first placement' after exclusion i. These groups were black young people of Caribbean heritage; black young people of 'other black heritage', i.
Twenty children reported by the LEAs to have been or at that time being 'looked after' were also included in the sample. The final sample consisted of young people: 86 pupils excluded in Y9; 84 in Y10 and 23 in Y Letters were sent to each young person offering the chance for the young person or his or her parents to refuse participation.
Exclusion From School: Multi-Professional Approaches to Policy and Practice
Where refusals occurred, replacements were recruited to maintain the balance required in the sample. The selection of the staff member reflected the provision that had been made available which in turn reelected the availability of provision in each LEA see table 4. Eight young people were not well known to a member of LEA staff as in cases where they had never attended local alternative provision or had moved on to a different area. Some data could be established on these young people but a full interview, using the schedule, could not be conducted.
When an interviewee's knowledge of the young person turned out to be limited, additional members of LEA or other agency staff e.
Where possible, documentary evidence supplied by LEA officers or encountered on site at PRUs or education offices was studied to verify or add to the accounts of the trajectories. Before each member of LEA staff was interviewed about the young person, details about the professional's experience, work role, knowledge of the LEA's provision and his or her assessment of the effectiveness of approaches and services were elicited.
Interviews with young people and their parents were undertaken as follows:. These were in addition to the young people who had been covered by use of the final interview schedule. Final interviews took place with the young person, a parent or close relative or failing this, a professional with a close knowledge of the child. Final interviews took place in relation to young people Details of the coverage of the final interviews are given in table 5. Some young people were seriously disengaged from or refusing local services. Home visits, sometimes following active investigative work, allowed the research team to make contact with and to track some of these young people who could be described as 'lost' to LEAs and sometimes to all statutory or voluntary services.
Contact could be unexpectedly lost with others of the young people. Examination of the data relating to the period from the exclusion through to the holding of the independent appeal hearings where applicable showed that 'actual or threatened assaults on pupils' followed by 'on staff' , were the most commonly cited reasons for exclusion. However, the cited reason could be misleading and did not record the long history of difficult behaviour usually leading up to the exclusion. However the use of the term violent could carry with it implications for the young person's understanding of themselves and the understanding that others might develop in relation to them.
The move from having been involved in some relatively minor scuffle to becoming a 'violent' person carries with it significant implications for subsequent engagement with the world. This may apply as much to social groups and communities as it does to individuals see Waiton, , for a sociological account of the politics of antisocial behaviour. This question of fairness of attribution is related to the question as to whether the young people believed their exclusion to have been unfair or were ambivalent about its fairness. There was little evidence of enthusiasm shown for the offer of placements other than new mainstream schools but three out of four young people accepted the offer and sometimes settled well.
Refusal to accept the offer sometimes related to fear of stigma or 'contamination' parents worrying their child would mix with and copy young people involved in crime or drugs. About a fifth were disengaged and 1 in 4 refusing to attend first placement. For those who wanted to be engaged, satisfaction was associated with longer hours offered.
Youth offending after exclusion was positively associated with disengagement at first placement. There was a significant improvement in relationships between young people and the teachers at first placement. A minority were going to new mainstream schools. Results: approaching two years after exclusion. Of the young people who remained in contact with the project Half of this group reported as viewing their exclusion as damaging lost educational opportunities, stigmatisation affecting job prospects, etc. J8 these are the subject codes that were used throughout the study Pakistani female, engaged in new mainstream school : I don't think anyone should get excluded because it ruins your life.
All the teachers say you need education, but they don't think about that when they exclude you. K3 white male, engaged at FE : It made a big impact on my life in general, but especially getting a job. There was nothing to do. I was cut off from my friends. I had no money to go out. I got very depressed. School friends stopped phoning me. It was a bad experience.
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Behaviour/Exclusion Policies - Cockburn
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Paradoxically, the findings of the research in the four senior high schools in Ghana revealed that the majority of the teachers and students 26 out of 28 think that disciplinary exclusions cannot be the panacea to solving behavior challenges of students in senior high schools in Ghana also see Fenning et al. Therefore, the claim of Fenning et al. These findings as contained in this article should guide education policy makers and practitioners in Ghana. The findings of the research further revealed that some students feel happy when they are excluded from school externally or indefinitely as this will give them the chance to stay away from school.
Moreover, the findings of the research suggest that excluding students in cases of dismissal or withdrawal from school, in some cases, led to early termination of their education. Schools are part of the means through which education is extended to members of the community to nurture individuals in the community. Therefore, exclusion from school, most especially in the manner that it is done in Ghanaian high schools, is paradoxical see Parsons, This article also examines some categories of offenses as prescribed by policy that attract exclusion from school to demonstrate the justification for deconstructing the current policy and practices on school exclusion.
They are presented in the following: In all the four schools where this research was conducted, when the offense of flouting the authority of the head and teachers is committed for the second time, the person is punishable by exclusion. This is to be determined by the disciplinary committee.
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This kind of exclusion can be in the form of internal, external, and indefinite. In one of the schools, it is extended to include flouting the authority of school prefects or senior students.